Sustainable development is the kind of development program which ensures economic progress without harming the ecosystem. The main goal of this program is to make the world a better place for everyone without destroying the next generation’s possibilities. It stresses on three things to keep in mind once; social progress, economic development and climate, and environment. It is a way of organizing society so that it can exist in the long term.
During the industrial revolution, Western civilization discovered that their economic and industrial activities had a significant impact on the environment and the social balance. To save the world for the future generation, in 1972; the United Nations organized first world leaders’ meeting in Stockholm, the – UN conference on the environment.
One of the main goals of this gathering was to find a universal principle to save the human environment. The UN member nations are trying to run this program within their territory to accomplish the goals of this program. This article is about the role of public policy in sustainable development.
The Role of Public Policy in Sustainable Development
After completing Millennium Development Goals (MDG) in 2015, which was started in 2000, on September 25 of 2015, the 193 countries of the UN General Assembly adopted the 2030 agenda for sustainable development. United Nations has declared 17 sustainable development goals that have to be accomplished by the member nations from 2016 to 2030. These goals are:
1. No Poverty
2. Zero Hunger
3. Good Health and Well-being
4. Quality Education
5. Gender Equality
6. Clean Water and Sanitation
7. Affordable and Clean Energy
8. Decent Work and Economic Growth
9. Industry, Innovation, and Infrastructure
10. Reduced Inequalities
11. Sustainable Cities and Communities
12. Responsible Consumption and Production
13. Climate Action
14. Life below Water
15. Life on Land
16. Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions
17. Partnerships for the Goals
Member nations are trying to set up policies to accomplish these 17 sustainable development goals, going with their country’s infrastructure. The government of every state who are member of the UN designed its public policies according to the goals. For further discussion, there has to be a clear concept about the rule of public policy in sustainable development.
What is the role of Public policy in sustainable development?
Public policy is government made rule, action in response to general problems. Public policies play a vital role in the development of a country. To achieve sustainable development, the law of the public policy of a country is significant. Every country designed its public policies so that it can achieve its desired development goals. To fulfill these goals, the proper implementation of these public policies is compulsory. Public policies are a guide for the government to accomplish their deeds. If the government designs its public policies according to SDG, it would be easy to achieve them.
How can sustainable development be achieved through public policy?
A nation must have to achieve 17 sustainable development goals to achieve sustainable development. The range of SDG is greater than the range of MDG. If the government of a country works in a planned way, it is possible to achieve success in SDG. SDG has 17 goals and 169 targets. To accomplish this massive program, the local government, and the higher administration have to collaborate. The government must have to assimilate its population to reach the SDG. The government has to think about the SDG and keep it in mind when planning their public policies. Public policies have to be implemented to achieve social progress, economic development, and a healthy environment.
- Through the implementation of public policy, poverty and hunger have to be removed from the country and ensure good health, quality education, gender equality, clean water, and sanitation for social progress. Some policies have to be designed, keeping in mind the unemployed young generation. Public policy can play an essential rule in the vocational education of young people.
- For economic development, public policies can be designed to achieve economic growth and progress in innovation, industrial sectors, and infrastructure. There is no alternative to public policy to establish sustainable cities and communities and reduce inequality. There is no possibility of funding for SDG. This matter needs to be considered while planning for public policy.
- The role of public policy in sustainable development to save the environment and climate is also essential. Life below water, life on land will get proper justice if there will be established policies for them.
From the proper implementation of these public policies, peace will be established in all the social sectors, and all the lives will get appropriate justice.
Role of public policy in sustainable development in the context of Bangladesh
The government of Bangladesh, one of the UN’s members, is also trying its best to achieve sustainable development goals. After the satisfactory completion of Millennium Development Goals (MDG) in 2015, the Bangladesh government takes some initiatives to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). Public policies are designed so that the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) can be acquired. The role of public policy in the sustainable development of Bangladesh is described below:
To remove poverty and hunger
Sustainable Development Goals 1 and 2 are the calls for eradicating extreme poverty and hunger from every stage of society. Bangladesh has achieved stunning success in downing the poverty line since its independence in 1971. By establishing some policies, the Bangladesh government is trying to eradicate this problem from the root. To reduce poverty, some essential strategies which are followed by the government are: increases in labor productivity, increasing farm income, investing in human capital, promoting overseas employment including women migration, ensuring stable food prices. Bangladesh has developed various Social Protection Programs to solve the problems of poverty. The programs include civil service pensions, allowance for the population with special needs, and programs focused on human development and environment.
To remove hunger from the country, Bangladesh has achieved remarkable success in food production. Safe food production and improved nutrition are the top priority agenda of Bangladesh’s government’s production system. The food ministry and the agriculture ministry are working hand in hand to eradicate this problem.
To ensure good health and well-being
Bangladesh’s government is working to ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages. The ministry of health and family welfare implements different activities, including the essential service packages representing the government’s commitment to ensure the right to health for the entire population. The next-door community clinic services, with free medicines, a reduction in mortality rate, and the use of ICT in health service, had a positive impact in the last decade.
To ensure quality education
SDG 4 emphasizes on attaining ability in primary and lower secondary education for both boys and girls, ensuring equal access to all levels of education. Bangladesh’s government established some policies to improve the condition of girls’ education so that girls can get the same education as the boys. They have arranged scholarship programs to attract students who are in a vulnerable condition.
Establishing gender equality
Discrimination against women in every sector is present in our country. Establishing gender equality is the 5th goal of SGD. Bangladesh’s government has adopted several policies to uphold the rights of women in the country. Numerous laws have been formulated to secure women’s rights; projects are running by the government like “My House My Project” to establish women empowerment.
Other policies to achieve another 12 Sustainable Development Goals
Just like these five goals, the Bangladesh government is trying its best to accomplish another 12 goals of SDG. The rule of public policy in sustainable development of Bangladesh is crucial. Bangladesh government has designed its policies to achieve almost all the sustainable development goals. To ensure clean water and sanitation, in Bangladesh, there are “Bangladesh Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project.” To achieve sustainable cities and communities policies regarding housing development are implementing, saving the climate of Bangladesh, Climate Change Unite (CCU) has been established to strengthen the government-funded project on climate change.
All countries are trying their best to fulfill 17 Sustainable Development Goals to achieve sustainable development. Sustainable development is a challenge that requires political innovation at three levels: reshaping of public policies, adjustment with new types of public policy instruments, and the invention of the new decision-making process. Only proper implementation of the rule of public policy in sustainable development can assist the government in reaching its desired goals. Without effective policies, the government will be failed in achieving its target. So every nation needs to give focus on planning of its public policy to achieve success in sustainable development.